Description: In past years disease causation frequently was thought of as a "dichotomy" between genes ("nature") and the environment ("nurture"). More recently this view has been replaced with a more holistic perspective that emphasizes the importance of interactions between genes and environmental and/or occupational exposures. The focus of this course will be on interaction between genes and specific environmental and/or occupational exposures. The course will consist of detailed evaluation of specific examples of gene-exposure interaction (e.g., beryllium-related lung disease, peripheral neurotoxicity from organophosphate pesticides, bladder cancer and amine exposure) the underlying science of such examples, medical consequences, potential policy and social implications of current and future scientific knowledge, and review of current and pending legislation that address these issues. The course will meet for one two-hour session per week, and will be conducted in an advanced seminar-style format. Student will be expected to make presentations and lead discussion, in addition to presentations by faculty and outside guests. Student evaluations will be based on written reports, class participation and class presentation.