Description: This laboratory course provides an opportunity for students to become familiar with approaches and techniques to studying microbial diversity. Techniques to describe microbial diversity at the structural, behavioral, and ecosystem level will be addressed. Emphasis will be placed on approaches to understand diversity within the human microbiome and environmental systems as well as the interactions between them.
Course Goals: The course has three main goals:
(1) Familiarize students with techniques to study the microbial diversity of the human body as well as the diversity of specific environmental systems that interact with the human body. These include drinking water biofilms and microorganisms in food. Research techniques that will be studied include culturing and sampling techniques, genetic approaches (e.g. cloning, 16S rRNA gene sequencing), microscopy and imaging as well as use of model systems such as Robbins devices and flow cells.
(2) Introduce the concept of functional microbiomics, and describe and perform laboratory techniques to investigate microbial diversity. Approaches to discover and interrogate cell-cell interactions between microorganisms will be introduced.
(3) Support students in the development of a model system or project in order to perform a discovery-based or hypothesis-based study of the microbial composition of an polymicrobial environmental sample.
Competencies: 2.A. Biological Variability
1. The nature and complexity of inter-individual variability (biological, biochemical, and physiological) as it affects the study of a disease process.
2. D. Human Physiology and Pathology
1. The biochemical and cellular basis for normal and pathological functioning
2. Interaction among anatomical systems and organs in health and disease.
3. The most important chronic, infectious, and degenerative diseases of humans in terms of the public's health
4. Pathobiology of major diseases integrated with the principles of epidemiology.
5. The impact of host characteristics (e.g., immune response, nutrition, presence of other diseases or infections) on disease outcomes
Learning Objectives: Three learning objectives include:
(1) Learn and perform laboratory techniques to describe microbial diversity as well approaches to analyze the results of experiments.
(2) Realize the impact microbes on the environment as well as on the human microbiome and understand how these communities may interact with one-another.
(3) Participate in a scientifically-based class debates and contribute towards the formulation of laboratory experiments.
This course is cross-listed with Pilot course so not yet cross-listed but upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students from other departments will be considered. in the Pilot course so not yet cross-listed but upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students from other departments will be considered. department.
EPID505 Polymicrobial Communities in Human Health and Disease
Undergraduates are allowed to enroll in this course.
Description: Regions of focus for the study of the human microbiome (image taken from http://nihroadmap.nih.gov/hmp/ )
This course provides an opportunity for students to become familiar with the concept that humans contain more than just an organized assemblage of mammalian cells. In addition to our human cells, there are numerous microbial inhabitants- many are bacteria. Indeed, on a per-cell basis, these bacteria outnumber human cells by at least an order of magnitude. How resident bacteria interact with one another and with transient (often pathogenic) bacterial species is important to understand because these interactions can promote health or potentially aid the transition towards disease. One such example of these interactive polymicrobial communities can be found in dental plaque, where 400 species of bacteria can cohabitate, and their physical and chemical interactions play a role in the colonization of pathogenic species. In this case, disease can be manifested as periodontitis. Other examples of microbial communities of the body that will be studied in this course include skin/wounds, the upper-respiratory tract, the gut and the urogenital tract. Overall, this course will describe the microbial ecology of the human body and driving forces promoting the transition from those communities associated with health to disease-causing communities. Special emphasis will be given to cutting-edge laboratory techniques when exploring the microbial ecology of the human body. This course will culminate with a broad overview of the current understanding of the human microbiome and potential associated social ramifications of future research.
Course Goals: The course has three main goals:
(1) Familiarize students with the microbial ecology of the human body and highlight the recent National Institutes of Health strategic initiative that focused on the human microbiome (http://nihroadmap.nih.gov/hmp/). Special focus will be given to particular regions of the human body, including the oral cavity, respiratory tract, gut, urogenital tract and skin.
(2) Introduce the concept of functional microbiomics and describe laboratory techniques to investigate the microbial diversity of regions of the body. Furthermore, approaches to discover and interrogate cell-cell interactions between resident and pathogenic species will be introduced. Research techniques that will be studied include classic genetic approaches (e.g. 16S rRNA gene sequencing), more complex genetic techniques (e.g. denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and metagenomic sequencing) and approaches to image in-vivo and in-vitro multi-species communities (e.g. electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy).
(3) Support students in the development of a discovery-based or hypothesis-based study of the microbial composition of a particular region of the human body. This will be presented in the form of an original research proposal that will incorporate current findings from other human microbiome research and will use these findings to study the given region of the body in health and disease.
Competencies: 2. D. Human Physiology and Pathology
1.The biochemical and cellular basis for normal and pathological functioning
2.Interaction among anatomical systems and organs in health and disease.
3.The most important chronic, infectious, and degenerative diseases of humans in terms of the public's health
4.Pathobiology of major diseases integrated with the principles of epidemiology.
5.The impact of host characteristics (e.g., immune response, nutrition, presence of other diseases or infections) on disease outcomes
Learning Objectives: Four learning objectives include:
(1) Learn about the complexity of the human microbiome and techniques that are available to study the ecology of human-associated microbial communities.
(2) Realize the impact of the microbial inhabitants of humans on health and disease and be able to describe microbial factors that promote the transition towards diseased states.
(3) Participate in a scientifically-founded class debate: Addressing the legal, ethical and social ramifications raised by research into the human microbiome.
(4) Understand cutting-edge research and review articles discussing results of investigations of the human microbiome. Furthermore, each student will use these articles to develop a paper which outlines a plan to study the ecology of host-associated microbial communities in health and/or disease.
EPID506 Health of Nations: Introduction to International Health
Description: This course presents an overview of mortality and disease occurrence in terms of geographic, cultural, nutritional and environmental factors. Reviews health indicators such as infant mortality and economic factors associated with development. Discusses health problems of developing countries and describes programs and organizations involved in addressing them. This course is required for students in the International Health track in Epidemiology but can also be taken by non International Health students.
Description: This course will teach the core principles of evolutionary biology and the special challenges of applying them to problems in psychology and public health. The course will begin with the subset of core principles of evolutionary biology that have particular applications in psychology and public health. Some of the early classes will be divided into subsections so we can match teaching to the backgrounds of students from different areas. It will then survey the fast growing field of evolutionary medicine, what it offers to psychology and public health already, and new applications that are likely to be especially useful. Most of the detailed examples will be from infectious disease and evolutionary aspects of behavioral disorders and behaviors that influence disease susceptibility. The course will close by addressing the challenges of formulating and testing evolutionary hypotheses about why natural selection left our bodies vulnerable to diseases, emphasizing how new research questions emerge from an evolutionary perspective, and new methodologies for rigorously testing evolutionary hypotheses about disease. At the conclusion of the course, participants will understand how core principles of evolutionary biology have been and can be applied to public health problems, and they will have a moderately developed critical capacity for assessing research reports in the area.
Course Goals: Introduce students to basic principles of evolutionary theory, especially as they apply to health and disease, with special emphasis on infectious diseases and behavioral and mental disorders.
Competencies: Be able to define and give examples of the relevant core evolutionary concepts.
Demonstrate familiarity with the techniques and methods used in evolutionary biology.
Demonstrate ability to formulate and plan studies to test evolutionary hypotheses.
Be able to critically review and analyze applications of evolutionary theory in the scientific literature.
Learning Objectives: Learn how to formulate and test evolutionary hypotheses about why selection has left the body vulnerable to physical and mental disorders.
Learn to critically review and analyze applications of evolutionary theory to problems in public health, psychology and medicine.
This course is cross-listed with Psychology 515 in the LS&A department.
Description: This course is designed for those interested in a basic understanding of human genetics who have had only a very limited exposure to biologic sciences. This course will cover the basics of genetics at both the molecular and population level. In addition to the basic science, some ethical, legal, and social implications of genetics research will be examined. Examples relevant to public health will be emphasized.
This course is cross-listed with in the PUBHLTH 311 department.
Description: This course will examine the major pathological processes of interest to practitioners of Public Health. Specifically, the physiological mechanisms of disease will be examined with a view to understanding the cellular, biochemical and molecular processes that underlie diseases of major public health impact.
Description: Considers the uses of epidemiology with emphasis on the social determinants of chronic diseases and premature mortality. Theoretical as well as methodological issues in conducting social epidemiology research are emphasized. Designed for graduate students who have prior familiarity with the basic principles and methods of epidemiologic research.
Description: This course is designed for students with biology or genetics background, that are interested in understanding genetics in public health. This course will provide an in depth examination of genetics in public health including newborn screening diseases and practices, fundamentals of population genetics, and the genetics of common chronic diseases.
Description: This course is an introduction to the production of scientific abstracts/posters/articles in Epidemiology. Students will read articles from epidemiology journals and write bi-weekly assignments related to their internships and masters paper topics. We will focus on the production of clear and concise prose that communicates complex ideas effectively to the reader.
Prerequisites: Grad Status and Intro Microbiology and Biochemistry or Perm. Instr.
Description: Microbial structures and their relation to basic mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis; structure, function, and genetics of bacterial toxins; and host resistance and immunity. Discussions of pathogenic organisms of major public health importance, diseases caused, and their epidemiology.
Description: Investigation of a selected problem planned and carried out by each student. Pertinent literature, investigational approaches, and progress in the investigations are discussed in seminars. May be taken more than once for up to six credits. Usually taken first for one credit. This is the Capstone Course for Hospital and Molecular Epidemiology Students.
Description: A period of elective (i.e., non-required) practical projects for international students in Epidemiology. Students work for at least eight weeks in an approved agency. Course requirements include this approved practical work experience related to the student's field of study plus prior and concurrent consultation with the student's faculty advisor. Restricted to Epidemiology majors with at least two full consecutive terms of enrollment.
Prerequisites: BIOSTAT 503, 553 or another graduate course in basic statistics, which may be taken concurrently with EPID 600
Description: This course provides students with the foundations of epidemiologic theory and practice. The course will cover conceptual and practical issues around the design, conduct, and analysis of epidemiologic research and the interpretation of epidemiologic data. The course format includes lectures and discussions of written exercises.
Prerequisites: Previous or concurrent enrollment in Biostat 523 or equiv; Epid 600 or 503 is recommended but not required
Description: Epid 601 is a comprehensive course in the basic concepts, principles, and methods of population-based epidemiologic research, which serves as a foundation for subsequent courses in epidemiology, biomedical research, and quantitative methods. Class topics expand on those covered in Epid 600. Emphasis is given to study design, quantitative measures, statistical analysis, data quality, sources of bias, and causal inference. The general approach of this course is both theoretical and quantitative, focusing on the investigation of disease etiology and other causal relations in public health and medicine.
Description: EPID 603 is a two-semester seminar course to be taken by OEE, GE, and GHE students in the fall and winter semesters in year one. Students are exposed to various topics such as self-assessment, professional communication, responsible research, and career planning.
Description: Application of epidemiological methods and concepts to analysis of data from epidemiological, clinical or laboratory studies. Introduction to independent research and scientific writing under faculty guidance.
Undergraduates are allowed to enroll in this course.
Description: Introduction to disease and transmission characteristics, and the descriptive epidemiology of infectious agents. This course will help students to understand the theoretical basis of pathogen transmission and what factors determine patterns of disease occurrence. Students will learn how to apply this understanding to disease prevention and control.
Description: Social epidemiology course with a focus on global population and health trends, health equity, and the social determinants of health in a global context.
Course Goals: The goal of the course is to provide students with an introduction to social determinants of health in the global context. We will focus on (1) global population trends, (2) drivers of changes in health in low- and middle-income countries, and (3) key social determinants that contribute to global health inequity.
Competencies: (1) Identify and describe population patterns of health-related risk factors and health-related outcomes in terms of person, place, and time.
(2) Be familiar with the current major public health issues and be able to identify and evaluate the determinants of these public health issues (e.g., demographic, pathophysiologic, genetic, environmental, infectious, behavioral, and social).
(3) Be exposed to published epidemiologic studies and be able to critically appraise epidemiologic findings.
Description: This course will focus on environmental determinants of infectious disease, examining the literature that addresses different environmental perturbations ranging from land use and climate change to urbanization and social changes. Students will learn about the natural history of infectious diseases and the different analytic methods used to study such systems.
EPID633 Introduction to Mathematical Modeling in Epidemiology and Public Health
Description: This course serves as a basic introduction to math modeling in epidemiology, with examples drawn broadly from infectious disease, chronic disease, and social epidemiology. The goal of this course is to give students basic familiarity with a wide range of topics and methods in mathematical modeling for epidemiology.
Description: This course teaches the fundamentals of data management, processing, manipulation, and critical review of data in SAS for epidemiologic and statistical analysis.
Course Goals: As a hands-on class, this course aims to teach the basics of SAS in addition to sharpening student's intuition about how to use, manipulate, review, interpret, and judge others' claims about data.
Competencies: 3.H. Computer Packages in Data Analysis
1.Use of computer packages for data entry and data analysis, to include spreadsheets, SAS, SPSS, STATA, and Epi Info.
3.J. Data Management
1.Different types of data (qualitative and quantitative), the scale used to measure the data (nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales), and how the scale used relates to data coding, data entry, and generating a codebook.
2.Standard practices for data coding, data entry, generating codebooks for an epidemiological dataset, data verification, cleaning, and editing.
Learning Objectives: By the end of this course, students should be able to read in raw data, merge files, recode existing variables, create new parameters, critically review data for errors, create graphics to understand data, construct datasets for statistical analysis, and interpret simple statistical output in SAS.
EPID643 Surveillance and Publicly Available Datasets
Description: This course includes an introduction to publicly available datasets and their use in epidemiologic research. Students will be introduced to datasets and will do in-class exercises using these data. This course consists of lectures, in-class exercises, quizzes, and a final written assignment.
Course Goals: The goal of this course is to learn about what datasets are publicly available as well as how to access them and conduct analyses using them.
Competencies: After completing this class, students are expected to be able to attain the following Epidemiology Department MPH competencies:
• Be familiar with basic aspects of field methods in epidemiology (e.g. human subject protection, data collection and management, survey design, sampling strategies, calculating power, and public health surveillance).
• Calculate and interpret measures of event frequency (e.g. prevalence, incidence) an measures of association (e.g. odds ratio, relative risk, attributable risk) and be able to articulate the uses and limitations of these measures.
• Understand and be able to apply analytical approaches to data from different epidemiologic study designs (e.g. cross-sectional, cohort, randomized studies).
• Demonstrate effective communication of epidemiologic findings in written and oral formats.
Description: Overview of contemporary methodologic topics in epidemiology
Course Goals: The goal of this course is to provide an introduction to contemporary methods in epidemiologic research. We will discuss conceptual and empirical work on directed acyclic graphs, mediation and effect modification, meta-analysis, systems-based approaches, gene-environment interactions, multi-level modeling, and inverse-probability weighting for selection bias.
Competencies: This course will address the following Department of Epidemiology MPH core competencies (List 1-10): 6. Be familiar with the the basic tools of causal inference in epidemiology (e.g. counterfactuals, directed acyclic graphs, fundamental of systems approaches). 7. Understand epidemiologic concepts of causal inference including bias, confounding and effect modification, and be able to apply study design and analytical approaches to minimize, assess or account for them in epidemiologic studies. 9. Demonstrate effective communication of epidemiologic findings in written and oral formats. 10. Be exposed to published epidemiologic studies and be able to critically appraise epidemiological findings.
EPID650 Principles and Practice of Preventive Medicine
Description: Introduction to the evolving role of public health and epidemiology in disaster preparedness and response. It uses epidemiological principles to develop skills relevant to disaster preparedness, planning and relief/recovery efforts. Students acquire skills to assess risk and evaluate impacts after disasters, and work on a local health department preparedness project.
Description: The ability to generate and interpret evidence is critical to addressing human rights abuses both in the courts and through national and multilateral policies. This course will use case studies to examine how to frame population research priorities and designs from a human rights perspective.
EPID673 Epidemiology of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Description: This course will address the epidemiology of aging from a public health perspective covering epidemiologic studies of disease, functional status, and well-being in late-life. The course is taught in seminar format, with in-class discussion of selected readings. Course evaluations will be based on class participation and a term paper.
Description: This course will provide skill in use of surveillance techniques for HAIs, concepts of asepsis, disinfection and sterilization evaluation. Students will have opportunities to work through real-life experiences in infection control, including communicable disease exposures, outbreak investigation, biodisaster exercises, risk assessment in the healthcare setting and infections in special populations.
Course Goals: Course Goals:
1. Expose students to knowledge necessary to work in healthcare infection prevention and control.
2. Allow students to develop marketable skills essential to infection preventionists.
Competencies: By the completion of the course the student will have:
1. Understanding of the modes of transmission, risk factors, and appropriate interventions for prevention of HAIs
2. Knowledge of principles of effective hand hygiene, isolation systems, barrier control programs
3. Knowledge of surveillance systems used in hospitals and ability to use surveillance definitions to identify HAIs
4. Ability to analyze surveillance data to develop infection rates, identify clusters and work through an outbreak investigation
5. Understanding of role of aseptic technique, cleaning, disinfection and sterilization and ability to assess the adequacy of these procedures
6. Knowledge of how HAIs may present differently in specialized patient populations.
EPID811 Critical Appraisal of Epidemiologic Studies
Description: This is an introductory course for doctoral students in the epidemiology Ph.D. program. It will proved a unifying examination of epidemiological constructs and their application to the evaluation of the literature. Topics include: Importance of causal relationships; study designs that can demonstrate and test causation; interpretation of results from causation.
EPID813 Advanced seminar on public health and aging
Prerequisites: Doctoral standing at UM with training in research methods and statistics in relevant disciplines.
Description: This course provides advanced training in aging research pertaining to the public health and well-being of older adults. It will cover a variety of substantive and methodological areas in aging-related epidemiologic research and geriatrics. Selection of specific topics will in part depend on the interests of participating students.
EPID815 Modern Statistical Methods in Epidemiologic Studies
Prerequisites: EPID 600, BIOSTAT 523 and BIOSTAT 560 for epid students. Biostat 650, 651 for biostat students
Description: The goal of this pilot course is to create an interdisciplinary educational experience for Ph.D. students in Epidemiology (also available as an optional elective for Masters students in Biostatistics) through a uniquely designed course that contains lectures on advanced biostatistical methods, but places them in the context of epidemiological applications.
Course Goals: Students enrolled in the class will learn about cutting edge statistical methods in these four contemporary topics that arise frequently in the present scientific context. These four topics are: (a) Modern techniques for model building and variable selection; (b) Methods for analyzing longitudinal data; (c) Spatial regression methods; (d) Methods for studies of interaction/effect modification. The course will equip the new generation epidemiologists with state-of-the-art statistical methods in these domains, and teach them the craft of translating a practical problem into mathematical equations. However, the entire theoretical learning process will be placed in the context of sophisticated modeling of data from large complex studies with a focused problem to solve. Data for the projects will come from two studies that Professors Park and Mendes de Leon are involved with: the Normative Aging Study (NAS) and the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP).
Competencies: After completing this class, students are expected to be able to attain the following competencies:
•Describe preferred methodological alternatives to commonly used statistical methods when assumptions are not met.
•Distinguish among the different measurement scales and the implications for selection of statistical methods to be used based on these distinctions.
•Apply descriptive techniques commonly used to summarize public health data.
•Apply common statistical methods for inference.
•Apply descriptive and inferential methodologies according to the type of study design for answering a particular research question.
•Interpret results of statistical analyses found in public health studies.
•Develop knowledge to communicate and collaborate effectively with scientists in a variety of health-related disciplines to which biostatistics are applied (e.g. public health, medicine, genetics, biology; psychology; economics; management and policy).
•Become well-versed in the application of core statistical techniques (biostatistical inference, linear regression, generalized linear models, nonparametric statistical methods, linear mixed models) and 4-5 selected statistical specialization techniques.
•Select appropriate techniques and apply them to the processing of data from health studies.
•Interpret the results of statistical analysis and convert them into a language understandable to the broad statistical community.
•Develop written and oral presentation skills and other scientific reporting skills, based on statistical analyses for public health, medical and basic scientists and educated lay audiences
•Employ state-of-the-art statistical and other quantitative methods in the analysis of epidemiologic data.
•Demonstrate a thorough understanding of causal inference, sources of bias, and methods to improve the validity of epidemiologic studies.
•Understand the principles and methods of data-collection and data-processing procedures in the design and conduct of epidemiologic research, with sound knowledge of measurement validity and reliability, data quality control, data management, documentation, and security
Prerequisites: EPID 605, 609 617 or any other infectious disease course.
Description: Tuberculosis remains one of the deadliest diseases in the world. Social and operational factors, the growing AIDS epidemic, and increasing drug resistance have dramatically compounded the tuberculosis crisis. This course will review the history, epidemiology, biology, pathogenesis, and clinical management of tuberculosis. It will examine the current issues related to tuberculosis and discuss the complex mechanisms that contribute to the almost unparalleled impact of tuberculosis on global health in the past and present time, including the impact of the emergence of AIDS epidemics.
Each session will include a one-hour didactic presentation of the specific topic for the session by the instructor followed by a structured class discussion of reading(s) relevant to the session-specific topics that address emerging methods. In the last session, the students will be asked to present their research proposals on an infectious disease of their primary interests using the concepts and methods learned in this class. While the focus of the lectures will be centered on tuberculosis, the discussions will address the application of general concepts in infectious disease.
EPID822 Malaria and other important vector-borne diseases
Prerequisites: Epid 602, Epid 605 or equivalent; EHS 513 or equivalent
Description: Infectious agents transmitted by arthropod vectors produce an enormous disease burden worldwide, especially in underdeveloped countries. Malaria alone kills more than one million people each year, mostly children, and results in 42 million DALYs lost. This course is designed to investigate the epidemiology of malaria and other important vector-borne diseases that principally affect poor people living in tropical countries. The complex interactions influencing transmission dynamics, including immunologic, ecologic, economic and social factors are explored. Options for treatment, prevention and control involving vectors, parasites and human behavior are examined. Analysis also considers the role of other infections, including HIV, as altering transmission and disease. Class sessions will include a brief didactic presentation of the key issues for that topic followed by a structured discussion of selected readings.
Description: This seminar will cover the Responsible Conduct of Research and Scholarship (RCRS) training for all incoming EPID PhD students and other individuals who are affiliated with a training grant. The seminar will also expose students to cutting-edge epidemiologic research topics through departmental talks by experts in the field as well as provide additional professional development training. RCRS is defined by National Institutes of Health as "the practice of scientific investigation [and academia] with integrity. It involves the awareness and application of established professional norms and ethical principles in the performance of all activities related to scientific research [and academia]."
Description: Doctoral seminar to provide guidance to new doctoral candidates as they write their prospectus, and to provide opportunities to practice the presentation modalities of epidemiology through seminars, poster sessions, and oral presentations.
Description: Students will review assigned readings on the epidemiology or natural history of specific infections or chronic diseases or on host or environmental factors associated with disease, or on epidemiological methods and their application. May be elected more than once