On June 5, 1981, the CDC announced that a relatively rare form of pneumonia had been detected among a small group of young gay men in Los Angeles.
Tacked to the bulletin board above Zoë McLaren's desk is a quote from former South African President Nelson Mandela: "Overcoming poverty is not a gesture of charity, it is an act of justice."
In the United States and elsewhere, people tend to get tested later because they're worried about the stigma associated with HIV.
TB is the most common opportunistic infection for HIV and the leading cause of HIV-related deaths.
Rachel Snow began researching HIV/AIDS in 2001, and since then she's seen the field shift from a focus on prevention to a growing concern with the capacity of health systems to manage the disease and cope with the complications it can generate--including tuberculosis, sexually transmitted infections, and reproductive health issues.
More than 30 years ago, Jerome Nriagu's career shifted course when he discovered that low-income children in urban areas were suffering disproportionately from lead poisoning. While industry leaders tended to blame the victims, Nriagu saw that the real cause of the problem was poor housing and the indiscriminate use of lead paint.