Description: Practical projects in the application of theory and principles of Health Behavior and Health Education to individual and community-based public health settings. Course requirements include an approved practical project related to Health Behavior and Health Education in consultation with a faculty advisor. THE EXPERIENCE IS REPORTED IN AN INTEGRATIVE PAPER DEMONSTRATING THE SCIENTIFIC APPLICATION OF HBHE THEORIES AND PRINCIPLES TO THE PRACTICAL PROJECT. May be elected more than once. Enrollment limited to Health Behavior and Health Education majors with at least two full terms of prior registration.
Description: This course is designed to provide students with an introduction of the major theories and principles guiding human sexuality as well as recent developments in sexuality health research; develop their understanding of methodological and assessment issues in the study of sexuality; and familiarize them with the extent to which sexuality research and principles inform public health efforts promoting sexual health. Students who successfully complete this course will be able to identify and critically assess: (1) major concepts, theories and perspectives guiding a multidisciplinary understanding of human sexuality; (2) recent developments in sexuality research; (3) methodological aspects in the study of sexuality; and (4) how sexuality research informs public health practice and sexual health education strategies.
Course Goals: This course is designed as an introductory course in human sexuality. Throughout the term, students will learn the major theories and principles guiding an understanding of human sexuality as well as recent developments in sexuality research; develop an understanding of methodological and assessment issues in the study of sexuality; and apply sexuality research and principles to inform public health efforts. This knowledge is considered critical to the development of effective public health behavior and education programs focused on sexual health.
Competencies: This course addresses HBHE Competency #1: Describe the role and interaction of key determinants of health status, health behavior, and health behavior change from a biopsychosocial perspective across the lifespan. Through assignments and their final project, students will be expected to: (a) describe the epidemiology of a sexual health problem; (b) identify its biological, behavioral, social and educational aspects; and (c)review, select, and apply theoretical constructs for predicting and changing a health behavior related to their outcome of interest.
This course also addresses Competency #4 (Describe and apply ethical principles relevant to public health research and practice) and Competency #6 (Describe and apply the knowledge and skills necessary to interact with diverse individuals and communities). Given the diversity of populations represented in the course, as well as the sensitivity of the sexual health topics addressed in class, students will be encouraged to value sexual diversity, and describe how empirical research and evidence-based practice addresses ethical issues related to the promotion of the public's sexual health and to the practice of sexual health education as a profession. Through active class participation and the facilitation of course readings, these conversations will serve to develop students' perspectives on their professional rights, obligations, and role as a sexual health educators.
Learning Objectives: By the end of the course, students will be able to identify and critically assess:
1. Major concepts, theories and perspectives guiding a multidisciplinary understanding of human sexuality across the life course;
2. Recent developments in sexuality research;
3. Methodological aspects in the study of sexuality;
4. How sexuality research informs public health practice and how sexual health is promoted in health education strategies.
HBEHED614 Women's Health and the Timing of Reproduction
Description: Applies a systems perspective to examine the personal, social, and cultural factors that influence the age at which women initiate childbearing and the implications of these factors for the health of women and infants. Topics include teenage childbearing, Black American fertility patterns, infant mortality, ethnographic and other research methods, and related policy issues. Reviews current, historical, and cross-cultural examples. Students apply course concepts and methodologies to specific research and policy questions.
Undergraduates are allowed to enroll in this course.
Description: This course will provide students with the background, knowledge, and experience needed to create different types of sexual health promotion interventions for diverse populations in multiple setting. Students will explore socio-ecological factors that influence the sexual health of diverse populations, and learn how to develop/implement theory-based and culturally-appropriate interventions.
HBEHED621 Seminar in Behavioral Research Methods in Public Health
Description: Intensive analysis of selected topics; characteristics and advantages of alternative types of studies; purposes of various experimental designs; development of methodology for program evaluation; interviewing and questionnaire construction and problems in analysis of data, with particular emphasis on problems of spuriousness
HBEHED624 Needs Assessment Methods for Public Health
Description: This course will cover a mixed-methods approach to conducting needs assessments; including collection of primary data (e.g. surveys, focus groups, and interviews) and secondary data (e.g. agency, state statistics, and census). Furthermore, a global perspective will be used to study various international efforts using health equity needs assessments.
Description: Individual work on a problem in the area of health behavior relevant to program effectiveness in public health, under the tutorial guidance of an appropriate staff member. Regular conferences are arranged to discuss research designs, proposed problem solutions, methods for data collection and analysis. The investigation is reported in a paper, which may be submitted for publication. May be elected more than once.
HBEHED626 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems and Health Behaviors
Description: GIS offer useful tools for collecting, mapping and analyzing health data. The course focuses on how to use GIS to understand the geography of health, health behaviors, and health disparities. Students will learn to use ESRI's ArcGIS for introductory data management, mapping and geographic data analysis.
Course Goals: The course teaches students how to use GIS to understand the geography of health, health behaviors, and health disparities. Student learn to:
•Articulate the role of GIS in public health
• Describe the basic structure of spatial data Identify and use available major sources of GIS health data
•Know the basics of managing GIS health data
•Gain an introductory comprehension of GIS data management, mapping and analysis
•Gain proficiency with using ESRI's ArcGIS
•Use GIS to understand and find solutions for public health problems
•Effectively use GIS products to communicate with stakeholders
Competencies: HBHE Competencies Addressed by This Course:
Competency 1: Describe the role and interaction of key determinants of health status from a social-ecological perspective (e.g. individual, family, organization, community, and society).
Competency 4: Apply basic principles of research and evaluation methodology relevant to understanding and modifying health status and health behavior from a social ecological perspective (e.g. individual, family, community, and society) within and across settings and countries with varying levels of economic resources.
Description: This course will examine families as a primary context for understanding health and health-related behaviors. Major topics include: 1) models and theories of the family, 2) history and current status of family-based practice, 3) the impact of demographic trends and their impact on family structure and functioning, 4) family diversity with respect to social status groups, ethnicity, and culture and their implications for understanding health phenomena, 5) families as the context for socialization to health beliefs and practices, 6) the provision of family-based care, and 7) health profiles of family members and their family roles.
This course is cross-listed with HB727 (School of Social Work) in the School of Social Work department.
Description: This course provides an overview of trends in aging and health with a particular focus on health behaviors and health promotion. Age-related changes in health and health behavior and the impact of societal and personal attitudes toward aging on health behaviors will be discussed. Successful aging, an emerging paradigm for gerontology, will frame discussion of strategies for facilitating optimal health behaviors among older adults. Current recommendations and practices and multi-level interventions will be presented for physical activity, smoking, obesity, weight management, nutrition education, immunizations, and cancer screenings. Recent evidence of the impact of health behaviors on brain health and the prevention of cognitive decline will be discussed.
HBEHED631 Budget Practices for Public Health Programs
Prerequisites: Prior completion of HBHE651 Program Development in Health Education
Description: Budget Practices for Public Health Programs is a series of 13 two-hour sessions which provides an introduction to budgeting relevant to managing public health programs. Students will learn basic principles and strategies of program and organizational budgeting, and will gain practical experience building and managing budgets.
HBEHED633 Social Networks and Social Support in Health Education
Description: Review and analysis of theory and empirical evidence concerning social networks and social support and their relationship to health status and health behavior. Examines utilization of social networks in health education programs, e.g., family network interventions, self-help groups, "natural helpers", community organizing.
Description: This is a course about doing qualitative social research in public health. One of its major goals is very practical and down to earth: acquiring the strategies and techniques needed to conduct qualitative research on human behavior. But the course also aspires to understand the philosophical, ethical, and political issues involved in the practice of social science within public health. The course will focus upon five phases of the research process: l) pre-research dilemmas and decisions, 2) theory and the formulation of the research question or hypothesis, 3) design, sampling, and data collection, 4) stages of data analysis, and 5) the implications of qualitative knowledge for representation of "subjects" and the expression of this knowledge in the form of written reports or publications.
HBEHED641 Materials and Methods in Health Education Programs
Description: The goal of this course is to enable participants to select and use learning materials and methods in health education programs. The course consists of in-class sessions where various materials and media are demonstrated and their utility as enhancements to learning discussed. Technical and production aspects of materials and media are considered in several lab sessions. Students are required to produce health education materials or develop learning activities through fieldwork in addition to in-class and lab sessions.
HBEHED644 Readings in Health Behavior and Health Education
Description: Review of literature on selected topics in health behavior, health education or related areas under guidance of faculty member. Critical analysis; written and oral reports. May be taken more than once for a total not to exceed 6 credit hours.
Description: Focuses on design of effective health promotion/health education programs. Moves between theoretical bases for program development and examination of practical applications. Initial sessions focus on framework for development of health education/health promotion programs. Subsequent sessions center on specific components of program design and application, as well as evaluation.
Description: Examines concepts, theories, and research in the field of group dynamics with particular application to health education. Emphasis on developing skills for observing, assessing, participating in, facilitating and evaluating small groups.
HBEHED653 Evidence-Informed Decision Making for 21st Century Health Care
Description: Health consumers now have unprecedented access to health information, from published research to consumer health websites to electronic health records to peer narratives. Yet, consumers face challenges in acquiring, assessing and using health information. There is a growing need for professionals to support consumers in navigating the sea of information.
Course Goals: Health care consumers/patients now have unprecedented access to health information, from published research to consumer health websites to electronic health records to peer narratives. At the same time, health care and disease management is increasingly moving from formal institutions to homes and communities. Nevertheless, consumers/patients also face tremendous challenges in acquiring, assessing and using health information. There is a growing need for professionals to support health care consumers/patients in their efforts to effectively navigate this sea of information. In this course, students learn how to apply an information perspective to health-related decisions faced by consumers/patients in the digital era. Students learn how to search health sciences research literature using a range of reference, bibliographic and pre-filtered ("evidence-based") sources. They also learn to apply evidence assessment techniques, including critical appraisal methods, to the health sciences literature. Students learn how to apply basic methods of research synthesis to health-related questions, and evaluate strategies for personalizing evidence for consumers/patients. Students will also apply the skills needed to train and support consumers/patients in effectively using key health sciences resources.
•Summarize, analyze and evaluate key features of a range of health sciences information sources.
•Implement effective searches for health sciences information, and successfully evaluate search results.
•Generate and implement training in optimal use of health information sources.
• Critically appraise published health research.
• Apply basic methods of research synthesis to health-related questions.
• Evaluate strategies for personalizing evidence for consumers/patients.
Competencies: The course directly supports the following HBHE competency:
3) Apply basic principles of research and evaluation methodology relevant to understanding and modifying health status and health behavior
While relevant to all sub-competencies within 3), the course is particularly targeted towards:
e. Critique and synthesize scientific evidence, including evidence review
f. Translate research findings into public health practice, including dissemination of proven interventions
Description: Consumer health informatics (CHI) gives health care consumers information and tools to facilitate their engagement. Students will become familiar with, and evaluate, a range of CHI applications. They will also assess the needs and technological practices of potential users, generate theory-informed design and implementation strategies, and select appropriate evaluation approaches.
Course Goals: LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1. Compare and evaluate a range of consumer health informatics (CHI) applications.
2. Generate CHI design and implementation principles and guidelines that incorporate theories from the behavioral, social and environmental sciences.
3. Assess consumers' health-related needs, resources and technology-oriented practices, and evaluate their implications for CHI applications.
4. Plan the design, implementation and evaluation of a new, theory-informed CHI application to address the health need(s) of a particular audience.
5. Develop a commitment to CHI practice with diverse user groups.
Competencies: 2. Describe and apply relevant theories, concepts, and models from social and behavior science that are used in public health research and practice to both understand and affect health status, health behavior, social change, and policy.
f) Understand the merits of using theory to inform interventions and their evaluation in public health.
4. Apply basic principles of research and evaluation methodology relevant to understanding and modifying health status and health behavior from a social ecological perspective (e.g. individual, family, community, and society) within and across settings and countries with varying levels of economic resources.
c) Understand and appropriately apply the major types of evaluation (e.g. formative, outcome, process).
5. Plan, implement, and manage health education and health promotion programs across diverse settings and populations from a social-ecological perspective within and across settings and countries with varying levels of economic resources.
a) Identify, explain, and apply the appropriate intervention strategy (e.g. policy advocacy, mass media, community organizing, social marketing, one on one counseling) to specific health problems and conditions.
b) Identify, explain, and apply the appropriate level of intervention (e.g. individual, family, community, policy).
c) Apply evidence-based approaches to the development and evaluation of public health programs.
6. Describe and apply the knowledge and skills necessary to interact with diverse individuals and communities within and across settings and countries with varying levels of economic resources.
d) Design, implement, and evaluate culturally appropriate interventions for diverse individuals and communities.
This course is cross-listed with SI554.
HBEHED659 Introduction to Adolescent Substance Use Prevention
Description: Students gain an overview of adolescent substance use prevention from a public health perspective. Students learn about the evidence-base on adolescent substance use prevention. They apply course content to create prevention interventions. The course examines both illicit (e.g., opiates, marijuana, methamphetamine) and licit (e.g., alcohol, tobacco) substances.
Course Goals: The goal of the course is to provide students with information about adolescent substance use, its consequences, and current evidence-based intervention, and to give them skills to develop or adapt an intervention to address adolescent substance in a specific population.
Competencies: HBHE Competency
5. Plan, implement and manage health education and health promotion programs across diverse settings and populations from a social-ecological perspective within and across settings and countries with varying levels of economic resources.
a. Identify, explain, and apply the appropriate intervention strategy (e.g. policy advocacy, mass media, community organizing, social marketing, one on one counseling) to specific health problems and conditions.
b. Identify, explain, and apply the appropriate level of intervention (e.g. individual, family, community, policy).
c. Apply evidence-based approaches to the development and evaluation of public health programs.
d. Describe the key elements of an effective grant proposal.
CEPH Foundational Competency
9. Design a population-based policy, program, project or intervention
Learning Objectives: • Understand the magnitude of and trends in adolescent substance use in the US and globally.
• Describe which adolescent populations are at greatest risk of substance use and its consequences.
• Describe the consequences of adolescent substance use on adolescent health and development.
• Understand and critically appraise the main theoretical perspectives that are used to explain what determines adolescent substance use, and progression in to abuse.
• Articulate the empirical evidence about the determinants of adolescent substance use.
• Identify and appraise existing programs and policies designed to prevent adolescent substance use.
• Apply the above to develop a new or adapt an existing evidence-based program or policy to prevent adolescent substance use.
HBEHED660 Theory, Research and Practice in Adolescent Health
Description: Examines educational efforts designed to promote better health outcomes among adolescents. Review developmental theories, research, and interventions to promote health in this population. Addresses various contexts for intervention programs and their implications. Topics covered include, but are not limited to, the effects of peer and family influences on health, resiliency, violence, alcohol and drug use, and sexual behavior.
HBEHED661 Designing Sticky Communications for Health Advocacy, Education, and Mass Media
Description: This class focuses on broadly applicable message design principles that help health education and promotion messages to "stick" in recipients' minds. In addition to deconstructing memorable messages at a basic level, we will also consider the potential uses (and misuses) of first person narratives.
HBEHED663 The Use of Brief Interventions to Help People Change Health Behaviors: Evidence-Based Strategies for Work in Clinical and Community Settings
Description: This course gives students an understanding of how brief interventions are used to impact health behaviors and the approaches used to help people make and attain behavior-change goals. Students also gain skills in applying scientific evidence from randomized trials and systematic reviews in public health decision-making.
Course Goals: 1) Know what brief behavioral interventions are and how they are delivered to address behavioral challenges
2) Know where to look for evidence supporting the effectiveness of brief interventions
3) Be able to review, interpret, and apply evidence from randomized trials, systematic reviews, and guidelines
4) Understand what types of brief interventions have the strongest evidence and for whom they work
Competencies: a) Identify theories, concepts and models from a range of social and behavior science disciplines that are used in public health research and practice involving multiple levels of change (e.g., individual, family, organization, community, and society).
b) Describe overlap between current models and frameworks, and their limitations
c) Describe how theory is useful in understanding why individuals do or do not engage in health behaviors.
d) Understand the merits of using theory to inform interventions and their evaluation in public health.
e) Describe some of the benefits and challenges of using social and behavioral theories and models to inform programs and policies involving multiple levels of change (e.g. individual, family, organization, community).
f)Describe key adaptations and challenges in applying theories and frameworks to conduct public health research and practice across cultures and in resource poor settings.
HBEHED665 Mobile Health: Text messaging, apps, and other mobile communication strategies to prevent disease and assist people living with chronic illnesses
Description: The overall goal of this course is to give students the knowledge, skills and experience they need to participate in decision-making about developing, implementing, and continuing mHealth services addressing major public health and healthcare challenges.
Course Goals: The course has two aims: First, to give students an understanding of how mHealth tools and programs are used to impact health behaviors in a range of important areas, including chronic disease management, mental health and substance abuse prevention and treatment, and global health. Students will learn about the challenges to behavior change as well as the factors that impact mHealth program design and sustainability. As part of that process students will sharpen their skills in finding, interpreting, and applying scientific evidence about mHealth programs. We will discuss where evidence can be found, and we will critique specific randomized trials and systematic reviews. Second, students will gain hands-on experience in developing, deploying, and evaluating an mHealth program via a series of exercises using a "real world" mHealth communication tool. That experience coupled with the more didactic presentation of the field will prepare students to design a hypothetical mHealth campaign addressing the public health challenge of their choice, specifying issues such as: the communication channels employed (texting, automated calls, apps, special sensors), content development, recruitment in the target population, data security, and program evaluation. The course will be a mix of lectures, group projects, guest speakers, and individual written projects.
Competencies: 1) Describe the key characteristics of mHealth interventions, the pluses and minuses of various design features, and the populations in which mHealth interventions have and have not shown promise;
2) Be able to design, deploy, and evaluate an mHealth campaign using LifeData software;
3) Be able to describe the development of an mHealth campaign, discussing key issues that drive system design including the reach of mHealth tools in the target population, strengths and weaknesses of various communication channels for the problem of interest, factors determining content development, interconnectivity with other data systems used by health professionals, strategies for financial sustainability and scaling, and indicators of program success.
HBEHED669 Genetics, Health Behavior, and Health Education
Prerequisites: SPH student or permission of instructor
Description: This course addresses the following topics: genetics and risk communication; ethical issues in genetics research; the psychological and behavioral impact of genetic testing; public and professional knowledge and attitudes about genetics; health education needs in genetics; and emerging issues in the field (e.g., computerized delivery of genetic counseling services).
Description: In the past few years, there has been increased interest in using motivational interviewing (MI) in public health and medical settings. Originally developed for the treatment of addictive behaviors, MI has recently been used to address chronic disease and other public health conditions, such as smoking, diet, physical activity, diabetes management, and medical adherence. At its core, MI is a method for assisting individuals to work through their ambivalence about behavior change. Deeply rooted in the person-centered philosophy of Carl Rogers, MI counselors are trained to rely heavily on reflective listening, more so than direct questioning, persuasion, or provision of advice. This course will provide participants with an in-depth overview of MI and provide opportunities to practice the core techniques.
Prerequisites: SI 582 or by permission of instructor
Description: The course focuses on the process of designing consumer-health technologies that are based on constructs from theories about human behavior and behavior change. Using commonly-used theories (e.g., self-monitoring, goal-setting) as examples, students will learn how to generate ideas for possible feature designs, delineate their tradeoffs, and make principled implementation decisions.
Course Goals: Consumer-health technologies, such as activity trackers and applications for chronic disease management, frequently incorporate features based behavioral-science theory, such as goal-setting or self-monitoring, intended to help individuals adopt and maintain health-protective behaviors. How exactly such theoretical constructs should be translated into specific designs is rarely obvious, however. In this class, students will learn the key aspects of the process of translating theory into concretely designed technology features: generation of alternative design ideas, delineation of tradeoffs of these ideas based on considerations of user experience and the options' ability to effect desired behavioral outcomes, and choice of which idea(s) to further refine.
Competencies: The learning objectives for the course are to:
• Understand the overall design process for consumer-health technologies
• Understand the tradeoffs of different implementations of commonly used theoretical constructs, such as self-monitoring and goal-setting.
• Learn to generate design ideas that embody theoretical constructs from behavioral science
• Understand ways that alternative designs can be evaluated during the design process
• Learn to articulate and formalize tradeoffs of alternative designs for a feature
Description: Explores dimensions of poverty in terms of the interrelationships of socioeconomic status, racism, minority status and health. The focus is on the United States and topics discussed include different conceptualizations of and perspectives on the relationship of poverty to health, issues in child and family health, in urban and rural poverty and health, and issues relevant to improving health services and health policy targeted at socioeconomically disvantanged populations.
HBEHED699 Career Development and Capstone in Public Health
Description: HBHE 699 is required by students enrolled in the Master's program in HBHE. Students engage in a synthesis of knowledge formation in health behavior and health education. This course supports competency assessment and professional development with a special focus on career development and job placement.
HBEHED700 Advanced Quantitative Methods in Health Behavior
Prerequisites: HBEHED 620 or 621; BIOSTAT 503 and 523 or equivalent
Description: This course is an advanced research methods course focused on the quantitative conceptualization and analysis of health behavior research. The course emphasizes the application of multivariate regression to practical questions in public health, and includes an overview of three regression-related techniques: Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), and growth curve modeling (GCM).
HBEHED710 Special MPH Topics in Health Behavior and Health Education
Description: Master’s level seminar designed to provide an extensive review of a number of substantive and methods and skill areas in health behavior and health education. Readings, discussion and assignments are organized around issues of mutual interest to faculty and students. Reviews and reports on topics required in the areas selected. May be elected more than once.
HBEHED733 COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH (CBPR)
Prerequisites: Doctoral Student or Advanced Masters Students with permission
Description: The involvement of community members in research and scholarship has emerged as a critical component for public health research. This doctoral student seminar focuses on the ways in which researchers and community members collaborate to conduct research that leads to community change, and improvement in health and quality of life. Such efforts often call for clarifications and/or redefinitions of: scientists' roles and methods, the knowledge development roles of participating community members, and the varying meanings of "community." Attention will be paid to scholarly debates, practical, and methodological issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research.
This seminar will address the major issues and methods involved in conducting community-based participatory research across different disciplines. It provides the opportunity for graduate students from different schools and departments to come together to share perspectives, develop new skills and explore how they can apply this learning to community-based participatory research projects.
HBEHED885 Health Education Models of Practice and Interventions at the Community Level
Description: The course is designed as a doctoral seminar for HBHE doctoral students. The course will examine and critique current models of health education and behavior change which intervene at the community level to bring about behavior change which intervene at the community level to bring about behavior change. The focus will be on recognized health education interventions/strategies. Major topics will include: 1) methods for behavior change (i.e., community organizing; mass media, etc.); 2) policy activities; 3) organizational change activities; 4) advocacy activities; 5) community planning models. This course will also be available to second year HBHE masters students on a permission of instructor basis.
Course Goals: The goal of this course is to prepare doctoral level students in HBHE to design, implement and assess health promotion interventions at the organizational, community, and policy level.
Competencies: See Objectives
Learning Objectives: By the end of this course students will be able to:
1. Identify and discuss various strategies and models of health education/health promotion interventions at other than the individual level.
2. Discuss and critique the theory, conceptual frameworks and constructs that serve as the basis of these models.
3. Articulate and critique assumptions underlying these models.
4. Apply these models and constructs to current public health problems.
5. Identify and discuss current evaluation strategies and challenges pertinent to these models.
me as 685.
Prerequisites: HBHE doctoral students or Perm Instr
Description: The course will involve in-depth discussions of issues and problems in using conceptual models, theories of health behavior, and data to inform interventions targeting individual behavior change. Presentations will focus on the rationale for selection of a particular theory or theories, conceptual framework, how the theory or model was used to develop the intervention, measurement of theoretical constructs, and the barriers encountered in the implementation and evaluation phase of the research. Intervention research will include those that target clients, providers and families.
Course Goals: Current faculty intervention studies will form the basis of discussion for several sessions. Some sessions will focus on critique of intervention research in the literature. Some sessions will be lead by a class participant. Since each session relies heavily on class discussion, attendance is required.
Learning Objectives: 1. Describe the role of conceptual models and theories for informing interventions that promote individual behavior change.
2. Discuss the relative utility of various models and theories dependent on the research question and target audience.
3. Articulate the difficulties and limitations of health decision-making models in providing direction in intervention research.
4. Develop and defend a conceptual model using behavioral, social science, and health education theories/constructs to inform an intervention relevant to a current health problem.
5. Discuss current directions in research involving theory and practice.
HBEHED900 Research in Health Behavior and Health Education
Description: Research work undertaken by doctoral students in collaboration with faculty advisers, including participation in on-going departmental research activities. Open only to doctoral students in Health Behavior and Health Education. May be elected more than once.