Health Management and Policy Winter Term Courses

HMP553 DATA MANAGEMENT IN HEALTH CARE

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Mendez, David
  • Last offered Winter, 2018
  • Description: This course introduces the students to the use of spreadsheets and relational databases for decision-making. It covers data manipulation and analysis, formatting and charting using Microsoft Excel; as well as design and implementation of, and data retrieval from, small-to-medium relational database systems using Microsoft Access.
  • Course Goals: The students are expected to develop a working knowledge of design and implementation of small to medium relational database systems, data retrieval and complex spreadsheet modeling and manipulation.
  • Competencies: Measurement and Decision Making
  • Syllabus for HMP553

HMP601 Healthcare Quality, Performance Measurement and Improvement

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Ryan, Andrew
  • Offered every year
  • Prerequisites: HMP 600
  • Description: HMP 601, building on the material in HMP 600, focuses on: the definition and assessment of quality of care; control of quality and costs of care through market-oriented strategies, professional self-regulation, intra-organizational process improvement approaches, third-party strategies, and government regulation; and system reform.

HMP602 Survey of the U.S. Health Care System

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Staff
  • Offered every year
  • Prerequisites: Grad Status
  • Undergraduates are allowed to enroll in this course.
  • Description: Analysis of current organizational arrangements and patterns for provision and financing of medical care services in the United States. Topics include the medical care process and factors which affect need, access and use of services; factors affecting supply and distribution of health professionals and health facilities, and current issues pertinent to these health care services; factors related to health care costs; quality assessment and assurance; and financing of care through health insurance and governmental programs.
  • Syllabus for HMP602

HMP603 Organization and Management of Healthcare Systems

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s):
  • Offered every year
  • Prerequisites: HMP Masters Standing or Perm Instr
  • Description: This course is one of two HMP courses that fulfills the organization theory/management degree requirement. These courses provide knowledge of the theories of organizations, the use of leadership, management processes, and organizational structures and outcomes. Specific topics include governance, strategic management and marketing, human resources management, and process improvement. This course is designed for future managers and leaders of health care organizations and those who expect to have extensive involvement with them from the perspective of buyers, insurers, or policy makers. The course provides students with knowledge about how the best health care provider organizations deliver high quality, cost effective health care, how they respond to their environment, and how they reach and implement decisions about future activities.

HMP606 Managerial Accounting for Health Care Administrators

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Singh, Simone
  • Prerequisites: Intermediate microeconomics theory
  • Description: Concepts and techniques of managerial accounting for generalist health care administrators. Topics covered include full cost measurement, differential cost measurement and analysis, sources of revenue, price setting, budgeting and control, costs and decision-making fund accounting
  • Syllabus for HMP606

HMP609 Special Topics in Corporate Finance

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Grazier, Kyle
  • Prerequisites: Financial accounting course or knowledge
  • Description: Introduction to finance ratios, forecasting methods, capital structure theory, and risk-return analysis. Case-based application of these concepts using several different approaches to valuing a business. Exercises to determine the value of the investment, analyze current financial conditions, and forecast performance based on different variables are utilized.

HMP611 Population Health Informatics

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Dombkowski, Kevin
  • Prerequisites: HMP 668 / SI 542 / BIOINF 668 Introduction to Health Informatics or permission of instructor.
  • Description: This course explores the foundations of population health informatics, including information architecture; data standards and confidentiality as they pertain to population health management. This course examines key concepts related to registries, electronic health records, epidemiological databases, biosurveillance, health promotion, and quality reporting in population health management.
  • Course Goals: At the end of this course, students will be able to: -Demonstrate and apply a working knowledge of population health terminology; -Understand and apply health informatics concepts that are salient to population health; -Apply data concepts, standards and architectures for sharing information to meet population health objectives; -Demonstrate how various information technology tools and strategies are applied in the practice of population health; and -Understand current challenges in population health and evaluate potential informatics solutions.
  • Competencies: This course provides training toward the following HMP major competencies: A.3 - Develop, understand and use data from performance, surveillance or monitoring systems. A.8 - Operational analysis: Analyze, design, or improve an organizational process, including the use of quality management, process improvement, marketing and information technology principles and tools. A.9 - Population health assessment: Understand and apply basic epidemiologic principles, measures, and methods to assess the health status of a population; identify risk factors in individuals and communities; evaluate the impact of population-based interventions and initiatives. In addition, the following minor competencies will be also addressed: B.1 - Convey: Speak and write in a clear, logical, and grammatical manner in formal and informal situations; prepare cogent business presentations; facilitate an effective group process. E.1 - Actively seek feedback from others, reflecting and learning from successes and failures. E.2 - Develop an accurate view of own strengths and developmental needs, including the impact one has on others.
  • This course is cross-listed with SI611.

HMP617 US Food Policy and Public Health

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Wolfson, Julia
  • Prerequisites: none
  • Undergraduates are allowed to enroll in this course.
  • Description: This course uses the social ecological framework as a vehicle to explore the different factors that influence the way we eat. We will examine different policy and public health approaches to address problems stemming from the modern US food system within the context of the social/cultural factors that surround food.
  • Course Goals: The goal of this course is to provide students with a nuanced understanding of the social and policy determinants of eating behavior, the complex relationship between food and health, and the policy levers available to influence that relationship. The specific objectives of this course are to help students: 1. Understand and assess the complex and interrelated factors (individual, structural and policy) that influence eating behavior and food related public health problems. 2. Appraise the political landscape and stakeholders that are important for making policy change in the area of food systems and eating behavior. 3. Apply principles of policy-making, policy change theory, and social determinants of health to food related problems in the US. 4. Critically evaluate academic literature, reports, and policy documents related to food and food systems. 5. Develop strong written and verbal communication skills. 6. Define and frame public health problems in such a way that inspires policy change.
  • Competencies: Primary course competencies: A.6: Policy analysis: Understand the policy-making process and the role of politics; assess a problem and identify and compare potential policy solutions; and understand and critically assess methods to evaluate policy impact. B.1: Convey: Speak and write in a clear, logical and grammatical manner in formal and informal situations; prepare presentations; facilitate and participate in group discussions. C.5: Collaboration: Work collaboratively with others as part of a team or group, demonstrating commitment to the team's goal and encouraging individuals to put forth their best effort. Secondary course competencies B.2: Listen: receive, process, and respond appropriately to information conveyed by others. B.3: Interact: Perceive and respond appropriately to the spoken, unspoken or partly expressed thoughts, feelings and concerns of others.
  • Syllabus for HMP617

HMP620 Professional Development

  • Graduate Level
  • Fall, Winter term(s)
  • 1 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Killaly, Catherine
  • Prerequisites: none
  • Description: This course is designed for HMP students to synthesize, integrate learning and to foster professional development and lifelong learning habits.
  • Course Goals: This course will allow HMP students to synthesize, integrate learning and to foster professional development and lifelong learning habits.
  • Competencies: Domain: Leadership C.3 Accountability: Hold self and others accountable to standards of performance; encourage commitment to the long-term good of the organization. C.6 Impact and Influence: Persuade and convince others, both individuals and groups, to support a point of view, position, or recommendation. Domain: Professional Development E.1 Actively seek feedback from others, reflecting and learning from successes and failures. E.2 Develop an accurate view of own strengths and developmental needs, including the impact one has on others. E.3 Continuously push self to raise personal standards of performance and exceed expectations. E.4 Address knowledge, skills, and other developmental gaps through reflective, self-directed learning, and by trying new approaches. E.5 Establish, build, and sustain a network for professional development.
  • Syllabus for HMP620

HMP623 Principles and Practice of Preventive Medicine

  • Graduate Level
  • Fall, Winter term(s)
  • 2 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Power, Laura
  • Not offered 2018-2019
  • Prerequisites: none
  • Description: This course is intended to introduce preventive medicine residents and graduate students to the principles of preventive medicine and public health via a seminar approach.
  • Course Goals: Goal: To introduce preventive medicine residents and public health graduate students to the principles of preventive medicine and public health via a seminar approach. Course Objectives (course competencies): 1.Individual seminars are facilitated by residency physician faculty and other invited physician faculty who provide guidance and oversight to the presenting resident for a given session. 2. Students will develop presentations that are based on peer review papers selected by the residents who also facilitate the participation of non-physicians enrolled in the course. 3.Students will present on topics including, but not limited to, emerging infectious diseases, cancer epidemiology, public health policy, preventive health services and management, immunizations, cardiovascular disease, and genomics.
  • Competencies: EPID: 2. Discuss population patterns of vital statistics, outbreaks, and health outcomes in terms of person, place and time. 8.Understand basic aspects of applied epidemiology in population, community, and/or hospital settings...and the relative use of epidemiological, clinical and laboratory information specific to each. 9.Demonstrate written and oral communication skills related to epidemiological sciences within the context of public health. HMP: 6. Understand and apply basic epidemiological principles, measures, and methods to assess the health status of a population; identify risk factors in individuals and communities; evaluate the impact of population-based interventions and initiatives. 8. Speak and write in a clear,logical;, and grammatical manner in formal and informal situations; prepare cogent business presentations; facilitate an effective group process. 10. Analyze the business, demographic, ethnocultural, political and regulatory implications of decisions and develop strategies that continually improve the long-term success and viability of the organization.
  • This course is cross-listed with EPID 650.

HMP624 Health Policy Challenges in Developing Countries

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Staff
  • Prerequisites: Graduate standing required.
  • Description: HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and diarrheal disease are the four biggest contributors to the burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa and represent a serious constraint on economic growth. They kill nearly 4 million African adults and children annually. Readings from the public health, economic and medical literature will focus on the main debates surrounding policy interventions to combat these diseases. The class will examine and evaluate the evidence on the nature of these diseases and the effectiveness of current interventions in Africa and other parts of the developing world. Through class discussion, small group exercises and writing assignments, students will hone their skills in policy and economic analysis. For the final project, students will develop policy recommendations for governments of developing countries on a global health issue of their choice.
  • Course Goals: The goal of this course is to introduce students to some major challenges in health policy to address infectious disease in developing countries and provide them with analytical and economic tools to gather evidence, interpret evidence, devise policy recommendations and communicate clearly.
  • Competencies: Domain A: Measurement and Analysis Measurement: A.1 Identify appropriate sources and gather information, effectively and efficiently. A.2 Appraise literature and data critically. Analysis: A.5 Statistical analysis: Understand and apply basic statistical methods relevant to public health practice. A.6 Policy analysis: Understand the policy-making process and the role of politics; assess a problem and identify and compare potential policy solutions; and understand and critically assess methods to evaluate policy impact. A.7 Economic analysis: Use basic microeconomic theory to understand how the incentives of consumers, providers, and payers affect behaviors, costs, and other outcomes; understand and apply basic econometric tools for the empirical study of issues in health economics. Domain B: Communication B.1 Convey: Speak and write in a clear, logical, and grammatical manner in formal and informal situations; prepare cogent business presentations; facilitate an effective group process.* B.2 Listen: Receive, process, and respond appropriately to information conveyed by others. B.3 Interact: Perceive and respond appropriately to the spoken, unspoken or partly expressed thoughts, feelings, and concerns of others.* Domain C: Leadership C.6 Impact and Influence: Persuade and convince others, both individuals and groups, to support a point of view, position, or recommendation.*
  • Learning Objectives: At the completion of this course, students will be expected to: 1. Become familiar with sources of evidence on the effectiveness and appropriateness of policy interventions. 2. Be able to discern reliable sources of evidence and identify limitations of the evidence. 3. Develop skills in using economic concepts to support specific policy interventions. 4. Develop skills in determining appropriate health policy interventions. 5. Develop skills in articulating and advocating policy positions through written submissions and in-class discussion.

HMP626 Race, Ethnicity, Culture and Policy

  • Graduate Level
  • Fall, Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Creary, Melissa
  • Not offered 2018-2019
  • Prerequisites: Graduate Standing
  • Description: This course is writing intensive and will critically examine aspects of health and policy reform from state and federal perspective. Taught primarily from a US perspective, topics with an international lens will be covered to explore domestic policy and international implications of policies and structures.

HMP628 Data Analytics in Healthcare

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): McCullough, Jeffrey
  • Description: This course will introduce students to machine learning and other big data analytic techniques. We will illustrate the strengths and limitations of these tools and their applications for policy and industry. Topics will include risk prediction, precision medicine, and population health. We will also discuss the legal and ethical issues.
  • Course Goals: Introduce machine learning techniques. Understand their strengths and limitations. Understand relationship between these tools and concepts such as population health and precision medicine. Ability to apply tools to health institutions and policies. Awareness of potential unintended consequences of these tools.
  • Competencies: a. A.1 Identify appropriate sources and gather information, effectively and efficiently b. A.2 Appraise literature and data critically c. A.3 Develop, understand and use data from performance, surveillance or monitoring systems d. A.5 Statistical analysis e. A.7 Economic analysis: Use basic microeconomic theory to understand how the incentives of consumers, providers, and payers affect behaviors, costs, and other outcomes; understand and apply basic econometric tools for the empirical study of issues in health economics. f. A.8 Operational analysis: Analyze, design, or improve an organizational process, including the use of quality management, process improvement, marketing and information technology principles and tools. g. A.9 Population health assessment: Understand and apply basic epidemiologic principles, measures, and methods to assess the health status of a population; identify risk factors in individuals and communities; evaluate the impact of population-based interventions and initiatives. h. A.10 Decision Making: Implement a decision-making process that incorporates evidence from a broad analysis that includes uncertainty, risk, stakeholders, and organizational values. i. B.1 Convey: Speak and write in a clear, logical, and grammatical manner in formal and informal situations; prepare cogent business presentations; facilitate an effective group process. j. C.1 Organizational Vision: Through effective governance, establish an organization's values, vision, and mission; systematically enhance performance and human, material and knowledge resources. k. C.2 Strategic Orientation: Analyze the business, demographic, ethno-cultural, political, and regulatory implications of decisions and develop strategies that continually improve the long-term success and viability of the organization. l. C.5 Collaboration: Work collaboratively with others as part of a team or group, demonstrating commitment to the team's goal and encouraging individuals to put forth their best effort. m. C.7 Organizational Awareness: Understand and learn from governance structures, formal and informal decision-making structures, and power relationships in an organization, industry, or community. n. D.2 Behave ethically and promote standards of ethical behavior throughout organizations and professional communities. o. E.3 Continuously push self to raise personal standards of performance and exceed expectations. 3. Analyze quantitative and qualitative data using biostatistics, informatics, computer-based programming and software, as appropriate 4. Interpret results of data analysis for public health research, policy or practice 7. Assess population needs, assets and capacities that affect communities' health 15. Evaluate policies for their impact on public health and health equity 19. Communicate audience-appropriate public health content, both in writing and through oral presentation 21. Perform effectively on interprofessional teams
  • Learning Objectives: 3. Explain the role of quantitative and qualitative methods and sciences in describing and assessing a population's health. 10. Explain the social, political and economic determinants of health and how they contribute to population health and health inequities.

HMP629 Employer-Provided Health Benefits

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 2 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Bechel-Marriott, Diane
  • Not offered 2018-2019
  • Prerequisites: HMP 600 and 601 or 602
  • Description: This survey and applied policy analysis class will provide students with an understanding of dynamics and key trends in employer-provided health care benefits. In addition to an overview of the topic, three areas merit special focus. First, pharmaceutical design will be explored. Though increasing technological innovation has brought a continuous cycle of new products to market, the lack of comprehensive effectiveness studies makes it difficult to ascertain optimal benefit. Interesting voluntary efforts will be highlighted that may lay a cornerstone for greater value. A second issue covered will be retiree benefit design. An aging population, stricter financial reporting requirements, and increased costs have prompted new ways to manage post-retirement health obligations. Several models, including Health Reimbursement Arrangements, Voluntary Employee Benefit Associations, and access-only platforms will be discussed. Finally, the important role of employer and community coalitions in better aligning incentives among patients, providers and employers will be explored. The focus of this seminar style course is on developing the knowledge, skills and methods necessary to better interact with employer groups. In-class work will involve class lectures, discussions, readings, speakers, activities, and assignments.

HMP631 Health Insurance and Payment Systems

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Grazier, Kyle
  • Prerequisites: HMP 600, HMP 602, HMP 606, HMP 661 or Perm Instr
  • Description: This course examines the conceptual and management frameworks for financing health care services through insurance, contracting and managed care. It analyzes past and current research on the formulation of payment techniques and the impact of reimbursement methods on consumers, providers, payers and society.

HMP633 Health Insurance in America. How Did We Get Into This Mess? How Do We Get Out?

  • Graduate Level
  • Fall, Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Udow-Phillips, Marianne
  • Not offered 2018-2019
  • Prerequisites: HMP 600
  • Description: This course explores the history, structure and likely future trends of health insurance in the U.S. The course includes policy analyses of health insurance related issues focusing on potential solution alternatives to political and practical problems. It provides in depth overview of basic features of private and public health insurance.
  • Course Goals: The major objective of the course is to provide the student with a comprehensive understanding of how the United States public/private health insurance system functions. It will provide future health services leaders with a working knowledge of the interrelationships between public programs and private insurance and approaches to cost control using risk management, provider reimbursement, benefit design and other approaches.
  • Competencies: 1. Improvement in writing, presentation and analytic skills, focused on framing issues and developing logical approaches to the resolution of issues. 2. Practical understanding of how the private insurance market functions, including how the market is segmented and the competencies required for each segment. 3. Understanding of the impact of risk on private insurance and techniques that are utilized to manage and mitigate the influence of risk selection. 4. Identification of the different international models for health care financing and coverage and the unique aspects of the American system. 5. Appreciation of the distinction between lowering costs to improve competitive advantage and lowering overall health care costs and the tactics and strategies that could be developed for each approach. 6. Understanding of the challenges that confront the future viability of public health insurance programs, including assessment of the options that will be considered, and the strengths and weaknesses of centralized versus decentralized administrative models. 7. Improved skills in working with groups to evaluate and craft potential solutions to policy issues. 8. Recognize the challenges inherent in balancing affordability, access and quality in public and private health insurance programs and the tradeoffs that are required to achieve a mix that meets purchaser and political requirements.
  • Syllabus for HMP633

HMP635 Case Analysis & Competition Presentation

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 1 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s):
  • Not offered 2018-2019
  • Prerequisites: HMP 600, HMP 615
  • Description: This class is designed for students willing to represent the department at the next NAHSE intercollegiate team competition. The course will develop skills at analyzing strategically oriented cases in healthcare management. In addition, students learn presentation skills in a supportive environment with feedback from peers, faculty and alumni. Students selected to compete at NAHSE and other students selected based on performance in the initial term will be invited to be facilitators in the following winter term.

HMP637 Pharmacoeconomics And Outcomes Research In Drug Development, Approval, And Reimbursement

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 2 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Shah, Manasee
  • Not offered 2018-2019
  • Prerequisites: HMP students who have taken the two course economic sequence (HMP 600 & 663)
  • Description: The purpose of this class is for public health students to understand the role pharmaceutical products play in the US healthcare system by gaining a deeper comprehension of the drug research, development, approval, and reimbursement processes with an emphasis on the role of pharmacoeconomics and outcomes research data.
  • Course Goals: -Obtain a thorough knowledge of the basic principles of pharmacoeconomics and outcomes research and their role in drug development, approval, and reimbursement -Gain a broad understanding of the drug development and approval process, including the roles of regulators and payers -Understand what drives patient access and payer reimbursement -Apply this knowledge to create a strategy for the development, approval, and reimbursement of a hypothetical drug
  • Competencies: A (Measurement & Analysis) 1. Identify sources; 2. Appraise sources; 7. Economic analysis; 10. Decision making; C (Leadership) 7. Organizational awareness.

HMP638 MEASURING AND MONITORING POPULATION HEALTH

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Mehta, Neil
  • Prerequisites: .
  • Undergraduates are allowed to enroll in this course.
  • Description: This course is an introduction to the measurement and monitoring of population health. Fundamentals of measuring population health including the measurement of life expectancy, healthy life expectancy, infant and maternal mortality, fertility, reproductive, and contraceptive measures, and the population attributable risk fraction will be covered.
  • Course Goals: Upon successful completion of the course, it is my objective that students will at minimum: ? Be able to critically interpret published population health data in policy relevant publications ? Possess a practical working knowledge of the main sources of population health data, where to access them, and their strengths and limitations ? Be able to compute from raw data the major indices of population health (e.g., life expectancy) ? Have improved their data analysis skills using Excel ? Have the ability to apply the core concepts of demography and population dynamics in applied data work and in interpreting published findings
  • Competencies: The following Department of Health Management and Policy competencies (see: https://sph.umich.edu/hmp/pdf/HMPCompetencyModel2014.pdf) are covered in this course: A.1 Measurement: Identify appropriate sources and gather information, effectively and efficiently. A.2 Measurement: Appraise literature and data critically. A.3 Measurement: Develop, understand and use data from performance, surveillance or monitoring systems. A.5 Statistical analysis: Understand and apply basic statistical methods relevant to public health practice. A.9 Population health assessment: Understand and apply basic epidemiologic principles, measures, and methods to assess the health status of a population; identify risk factors in individuals and communities; evaluate the impact of population-based interventions and initiatives. B.1 Convey: Speak and write in a clear, logical, and grammatical manner in formal and informal situations; prepare cogent business presentations; facilitate an effective group process. B.2 Listen: Receive, process, and respond appropriately to information conveyed by others. B.3 Interact: Perceive and respond appropriately to the spoken, unspoken or partly expressed thoughts, feelings, and concerns of others.

HMP639 Immigration and Health

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Mehta, Neil
  • Undergraduates are allowed to enroll in this course.
  • Description: This seminar examines the inter-relationships among immigration, health, and society in high income countries. We will integrate perspectives from sociology, demography, and economics to understand the main forces shaping immigrant outcomes. Topics covered include migrant selection, assimilation, race/ethnic relations, socioeconomic integration, refugees, undocumented immigrants, and healthcare utilization.
  • Course Goals: Upon completion of the course, students should be able to: 1. Apply social science theories and approaches to the study of immigrant health 2. Evaluate academic and popular claims concerning immigration issues 3. Know how to access population data on immigration and be able to evaluate their strengths and limitations 4. Integrate knowledge of core immigrant issues within professional undertakings in health policy 5. Design evidence-based policies focused on immigrant health
  • Competencies: Evidence-based Approaches to Public Health #1 Select quantitative and qualitative data collection methods appropriate for a given public health context #4 Interpret results of data analysis for public health research, policy or practice Public Health & Health Care Systems #6 Discuss the means by which structural bias, social inequities and racism undermine health and create challenges to achieving health equity at organizational, community and societal levels Planning & Management to Promote Health #9 Design a population-based policy, program, project or intervention Policy in Public Health #14 Advocate for political, social or economic policies and programs that will improve health in diverse populations
  • Learning Objectives: Profession & Science of Public Health #4 List major causes and trends of morbidity and mortality in the US or other community relevant to the school or program Factors Related to Human Health #7 Explain the social, political and economic determinants of health and how they contribute to population health and health inequities #9 Explain behavioral and psychological factors that affect a population's health

HMP640 Program Evaluation in Public Health

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Staff
  • Prerequisites: grad status
  • Description: The Purpose of this course is to provide students with an understanding of the fundamentals of evaluation and research as applied to public health programs, policies and other types of interventions. The course covers impact, outcomes, process and participatory evaluation, and a number of research designs common in public health evaluation research, Students will gain skills in framing evaluation questions. In addition, students will gain skills needed to understand and critique published evaluation literature, and skills in measurement/data collection strategies. Class format includes lecture, discussion articles, and small group exercises. For final project, students will design and write and evaluation plan in the format of a proposal for funding.

HMP643 Managing People in Health Organizations

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel
  • Prerequisites: grad status
  • Description: This course provides the knowledge and skills for understanding and effectively managing individuals and groups within health care organizations. We consider a wide variety of motivations that draw individuals to their jobs and keep them productive. We also consider why organizations form small groups and the dynamics of these groups over time. Students learn techniques for persuasive communication and conflict management, develop strategies for dealing with interpersonal problems in an organizational setting, and processes for handling work teams. Common organizational problems that students solve include choosing the right person through the hiring process, evaluating employee performance, and negotiating contracts.
  • Syllabus for HMP643

HMP644 Strategic Planning and Marketing in Health Care

  • Graduate Level
  • Fall, Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Staff; Anthony, Denise;
  • Prerequisites: HMP 600, HMP 601 or HMP 602 or PI
  • Description: Covers general concepts of strategic planning for business development and marketing as applied to health care settings. Topics include: assessing and understanding the needs of key customer groups; health consumer behavior; market segmentation and targeting; clinical staff needs and relations; forecasting service demand; new product development; product pricing and distribution; advertising and public relations; analysis of collaborative and competitive environments, and strategy formulation. Potential conflicts between an organization's business objectives and its participation with competitors in collaborative community benefit programs are also explored. In the 3 credit hour version of the course, extra emphasis is placed on experiential learning methodologies for developing health services strategic plans and the exploration of topics key to successful strategic positioning, business development, and marketing in the management of health care services.

HMP649 Critical Policy Issues in Health IT

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Friedman, Charles
  • Description: This course uses a policy analysis lens to critically examine issues related to the use of IT in healthcare. It will examine key policies in three areas: clinical informatics, consumer informatics, and population health informatics. The primary focus will be on the U.S. but international approaches will also be discussed.
  • Course Goals: Students completing the course will (1) understand the policies and government-led efforts that impact (both directly and indirectly) health informatics; and (2) be able to critically analyze these policies in order to understand how they will shape the health informatics landscape as well as to make suggested improvements that are practically and politically feasible. There are specific learning objectives for each session in the syllabus.
  • Competencies: (1) To understand key regulations and policies that relate to health IT (e.g., the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act, HIPAA, Stark). (2) To understand the key stakeholders involved in and impacted by the key regulations and policies. (3) To understand and be able to apply a policy analysis framework (4) To develop policy-relevant writing skills
  • This course is cross-listed with SI654.

HMP653 Law and Public Health

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Haffajee, Rebecca
  • Prerequisites: Grad Status
  • Undergraduates are allowed to enroll in this course.
  • Description: The purposes of this course are to examine the legal context of the relationship between the individual and the community, and to understand public health regulation in the context of a market-driven system. The goals of the course are for students to understand generally: constitutional authority and limits on governmental intervention in public health (i.e., individual rights vs. society's rights); the functions of and interactions between courts, legislatures, and regulators; how law will affect students as strategic thinkers in public health positions; how to recognize legal issues and communicate with attorneys; and the process of public health regulation and potential legal barriers to public health intervention strategies. Specific topics will vary, but will usually include: the nature and scope of public health authority; constitutional constraints on public health initiatives; tobacco control; youth violence; injury prevention; the spread of communicable disease; and regulating environmental risk. This class can be taken as an elective, in fulfillment of the law/politics requirement, or as a BIC requirement.
  • Syllabus for HMP653

HMP655 Decision Making Models in Health Care

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Mendez, David; Hutton, David;
  • Prerequisites: HMP654
  • Description: Application of computer models for decision making in the health care sector. The students will be exposed to Monte Carlo Simulation, Process Simulation, Multiple Regression analysis, Discriminant Analysis, Project Management, Inventory Control, Integer Linear Programming, and Multi-Criteria Optimization. Use of computers and spreadsheet modeling will be emphasized throughout the class.
  • Syllabus for HMP655

HMP660 Economics of Health Management and Policy I

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Hirth, Richard
  • Prerequisites: Grad Status
  • Undergraduates are allowed to enroll in this course.
  • Description: This course covers the principles of microeconomic theory and the fundamental concepts of the field of health economics. The purpose of the course is to give you experience analyzing health management and health policy issues using economic tools.
  • Syllabus for HMP660

HMP662 The Economics of Health Management and Policy

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 4 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Hirth, Richard
  • Prerequisites: Enrollment in the HMP Executive Masters program
  • Description: HMP 662 will introduce students to economic analysis through general microeconomic theory of consumer and producer behavior. This general theory will then be applied to a variety of health and health care topics, including health insurance, health behaviors, and markets for healthcare services.
  • Course Goals: To introduce students to economic analysis and economic reasoning through microeconomic theory and its application to health and health care.
  • Competencies: The primary learning objectives of the course are to familiarize students with the approach and terminology of microeconomic analysis and its application to health and health care. The major exit competency is in economic analysis, with minor competencies in the use of data, statistical analysis, policy analysis, decision-making, and collaborate/teams.

HMP667 Advanced Seminar in Health Care Financial Management

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Grazier, Kyle
  • Not offered 2018-2019
  • Prerequisites: HMP Student or Perm of Instr. and HMP 607
  • Description: This course builds on the language, theories and methods of finance and accounting through the study of financial transactions involving health care and other industries. Topics include financing alternatives, valuations, financial forecasting, risk management, entreprenuership and sustainable growth. Among the transactions studied are corporate lending, venture capital acquisition, and public offerings. Cases, readings, lectures.

HMP671 Cross-national Comparisons of Aging and Health

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Liang, Jersey
  • Not offered 2018-2019
  • Prerequisites: None
  • Description: This course examines aging and health within a global context. The focus will be placed primarily on old age support systems in the United States and several other developed nations (e.g., Canada, Germany, Japan, and United Kingdom). Specifically, comparisons across these nations will be made in: (a) population aging and health, (b) acute care, (c) long-term care, and (d) family-based support, and (e) financial security in old age. Population aging and health in developing nations (e.g., China, India) will be reviewed in light of the lessons learned in the developed countries.

HMP672 Population health in China

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s):
  • Not offered 2018-2019
  • Description: This course aims to provide an overview of population health and related policy issues in China. It consists of three main sections: (a) population and development, (b) burden of disease, and (c) health care financing and delivery.
  • Course Goals: At the completion of this course, students will be expected to learn about the following: 1. Population health in China in the context of demographic transition, economic development, and urbanization, 2. Health care financing, workforce, organization, and reforms in China, 3. Major public health challenges in China and their policy implications, and 4. Apply the knowledge of population health in China to the analysis of current issues in health policy and management. In addition, to sharpen their management and leadership skills, students are required to: 1. Engage in collaborative learning by participating in a journal club, 2. Learn how to write a policy paper, and 3. Conduct professional presentations and peer reviews.
  • Competencies: A.1 Identify appropriate sources and gather information, effectively and efficiently. A.2 Appraise literature and data critically. A.6 Policy analysis: Understand the policy-making process and the role of politics; assess a problem and identify and compare potential policy solutions; and understand and critically assess methods to evaluate policy impact. A.9 Population health assessment: Understand and apply basic epidemiologic principles, measures, and methods to assess the health status of a population; identify risk factors in individuals and communities; evaluate the impact of population-based interventions and initiatives. B.1 Convey: Speak and write in a clear, logical, and grammatical manner in formal and informal situations; prepare cogent business presentations; facilitate an effective group process.* B.2 Listen: Receive, process, and respond appropriately to information conveyed by others. B.3 Interact: Perceive and respond appropriately to the spoken, unspoken or partly expressed thoughts, feelings, and concerns of others.* E.1 Actively seek feedback from others, reflecting and learning from successes and failures. E.2 Develop an accurate view of own strengths and developmental needs, including the impact one has on others.* E.3 Continuously push self to raise personal standards of performance and exceed expectations. E.4 Address knowledge, skills, and other developmental gaps through reflective, self-directed learning, and by trying new approaches.*

HMP673 Health Program Management and Evaluation in Resource Poor Countries

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 2 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s):
  • Not offered 2018-2019
  • Prerequisites: EPID554
  • Description: This course will introduce future leaders to the skills and techniques required in order to become effective program managers of health projects in resource poor countries. The course covers a diverse set of topics within the context of health programs in resource poor countries that include: project and process management; project sustainability and quality assurance; proposal/grant writing; human resource management; project and process management software and technology; and financial budget development and monitoring. Each session of two hours will consist of a one hour seminar followed by one hour of practical exercises through group discussion and application of skills/techniques to real world scenarios. The course will primarily rely on case study analysis, readings from a variety of management, global health other social science journals and personal experiences of invited SPH faculty/guest speakers.
  • Course Goals: The overall goal of the course is to introduce students to the fundamental skills and techniques required in order to become effective program managers of health projects in resource poor countries. Other course objectives are for students to: 1) develop an understanding of health program management and monitoring in resource poor countries through real world case study analyses; and 2) identify any technical, financial, political and human resource factors required to implement and sustain successful health projects with particular reference to resource-constrained environments.
  • Competencies: Students will gain competencies in 1) applying program management and evaluation tools/techniques to health programs in resource poor countries; 2) applying project and process management software; 3) understanding the fundamental principles of successful proposal preparation/grant writing techniques; and 4) improve knowledge, ability and skills levels in health program management in a resource poor country context.
  • Learning Objectives: Students will have an understanding of the language and application of program management and evaluation tools/techniques to health programs in resource poor countries. Students will also appreciate the challenges of health program management in resource poor countries and how to identify appropriate tools/techniques to mitigate them through interactive exercises and hands-on applications. Other learning objectives are: 1) develop and enhance professional skills in program design, program monitoring and evaluation and resource allocation; 2) acquire the confidence, knowledge and skills needed to become effective program managers in global health practice; 3) equip students with the skills that are necessary to work effectively as a team member or team leader/facilitator; and 4) enable students to design, manage and evaluate health programs in resource poor countries.

HMP680 Special Topics in Health Management and Policy

  • Graduate Level
  • Fall, Winter term(s)
  • 1-3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Staff
  • Prerequisites: none
  • Description: Lecture, seminars and readings selected on a current or emerging topic or theme in health, management and policy. The specific material and format will vary by semester and instructor.
  • Course Goals: Will vary by topic and instructor.
  • Competencies: Will vary by topic and instructor.

HMP682 Case Studies in Health Services Administration

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s):
  • Prerequisites: Second year HMP masters candidate or Perm Instr
  • Description: Analysis of cases dealing with administrative and policy issues in health services, offered as one of two integrative capstone course for persons completing the MHSA or MPH in the Department of Health Management and Policy. The course addresses primarily issues of healthcare delivery, from the perspective of corporate strategy. Emphasis is on student solutions to ill-defined, multi-faceted problems taken from actual situations. Specific competencies developed by the course address both process team work and collaboration to analyze complex issues, presentation skills and contents identifying key business success factors and strategic alternatives for provider organizations and health insurers in various settings.

HMP684 The Politics of Health Services Policy

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Greer, Scott
  • Prerequisites: MHSA student or PI
  • Description: Understanding politics is crucial for understanding a health care organization's environment and determining its strategy. Whether through payment structures, coverage plans, safety regulation or simple zoning conflicts, governments shape health care delivery. This course equips students to understand and influence American politics. It presents the basic institutions and political strategies of contemporary health policymaking, focusing on the politics of coverage expansion at the state and federal levels and other current political developments. Major topics will include analyzing the structure and lessons of various federal coverage programs and student-led research into the politics of state health coverage schemes. Students will leave the class with an understanding of the political context in which health care executives operate and the importance of engaging in the political process. Since health care policy is often unpredictably influenced by the broader flow of politics, the course will frame health care delivery in the United States in the context of current American politics. This class can be taken as an elective or in fulfillment of the law/politics requirement.

HMP685 The politics of Public Health Policy

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Greer, Scott
  • Prerequisites: Grad Standing
  • Description: Policy requires politics: behind every positive or negative decision governments make, there are elected politicians, politically skilled officials, journalists, and other stakeholders. Understanding the world of politics is crucial to influencing and implementing policies for public health. Indeed, it is impossible to understand public health policy outside of its political context. This class presents the basic institutions and politics of contemporary public health policymaking through studies of institutions and contemporary policy debates. Through analysis of case studies including obesity, state health plans, smoking and pharmaceutical regulation, students will explore the influence of politics on the definitions and decisions of public health issues. They will leave the class with an understanding of how politics explains current public health policymaking debates and an improved ability to understand the politics of major public health policy issues. This class can be taken as an elective, as a BIC requirement, or in fulfillment of the HMP law/politics requirement.

HMP687 Health Care Negotiation

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s):
  • Not offered 2018-2019
  • Description: Changes in health care require collaboration between disciplines and professionals. Negotiation, a fundamental of organized behavior, is especially challenging in health care because of the large number of stakeholders and the sensitivity around care itself. Conflict management can be achieved through the use of negotiating techniques, with significant economic savings.

HMP690 Readings in Health Management and Policy

  • Graduate Level
  • Fall, Winter, Spring-Summer term(s)
  • 1-4 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Staff
  • Prerequisites: Grad Status and Perm Instr
  • Description: Directed readings or research on selected topics and problems relevant to health management and policy. May be elected more than once.

HMP694 MS-HSR Thesis Analysis and Presentation

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Staff
  • Not offered 2018-2019
  • Prerequisites: MS-HSR second year degree status
  • Description: The student will produce a thesis, based on independent research (with guidance and mentoring from HMP faculty), to be completed in the second year. The thesis must present original research, as opposed to a literature review or some sort of "thought piece" or opinion statement. The research can involve analysis of primary or secondary data, and the analysis involved can be either qualitative or quantitative. The only requirement is that the thesis involve some sort of data analysis to answer one or more research questions of interest to health services or health policy research.

HMP805 Doctoral Seminar in Health Services and Systems Research III

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 1 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Norton, Edward
  • Description: HMP805 Political Science consists of six 2.5-hour weekly sessions, and it will be conducted as a seminar. Before each session, all students are expected to complete the required reading assignments in preparation for a lively and informed discussion in class. In addition, each student is expected to submit short response papers, which should include one's reactions, reflections, and questions for discussion. At each session, there will be a division of labor among students in summarizing the assigned readings and leading a discussion of them. The discussion will center on conceptual, analytical, and applied issues, whereas the instructor will serve as the moderator and a sounding board.
  • Course Goals: Political Science explains policies by investigating the political systems that produce them, spanning topics such as federalism, party politics, public opinion, and interest groups in different countries. The course will exemplify key relevant political science approaches to health politics, furnishing students with understanding of political science methods and key findings. Finally, a session will allow an in-depth discussion of political science as applied to research and policy analysis related to a chosen topic shared across the modules.
  • Competencies: To receive credit for the module, students are expected to attend all sessions, read the assigned articles, and provide feedback that demonstrates an understanding of the key points of the readings and discussion. The module is graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory.
  • Learning Objectives: Students will gain an initial understanding of political science's place in understanding health policies. In particular, the students will be exposed to key political issues influencing health policy and the manners in which political scientists discuss and study them.

HMP806 Doctoral Seminar in Health Services and Systems Research IV

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 1 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Norton, Edward
  • Last offered Winter, 2018
  • Description: The economics module will provide an introduction to economic reasoning and methods and a sample of research topics that have been approached by economists working on health and health care. Readings will be a mix of classic papers and recent papers that illustrate this approach yet are accessible to both economists and students training in other disciplines.
  • Course Goals: To provide students with a familiarity with the theoretical and empirical approaches taken by economists working on health and health care, and with the types of questions that have received attention from the discipline, how those approaches and questions compare to those from other disciplines, and how to better understand, communicate with, and collaborate with members of other disciplines.
  • Competencies: This course will contribute to competencies in economic analysis and interdisciplinary analysis. How will students be evaluated, and how will grades be determined? 1) Have students lead presentations of papers. Each student not only leads discussion, but also prepares a short summary of the paper along with suggested questions for discussion. [50%] 2) Students identify a pair of papers, one in economics and the other in their own discipline (or for the economists, in the more general health services research literature). The papers should be paired by topic. The students would present the pair, and turn in a short, structured written assignment comparing the approaches of the two papers. [50%]
  • Learning Objectives: Students should gain a better understanding of the role economics has played in health services research and public health and be able to identify how the approaches and questions addressed by economists compare to those taken by researchers specializing in other social science disciplines.
  • Syllabus for HMP806

HMP809 Logic and Methods of Medical Care Research(Psych 809)

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel
  • Description: Principles of the scientific method and the logic of the research process. The logic and methodologies of problem formulation, development of hypotheses and objectives, research design, sampling, operationalism and measurement, coding and analysis strategies. Primarily for doctoral students in Health Services Organization and Policy.

HMP815 Readings in Medical Care

  • Graduate Level
  • Fall, Winter, Spring, Spring-Summer, Summer term(s)
  • 1-4 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Liang, Jersey
  • Prerequisites: Perm Instr
  • Description: Directed readings in special areas. May be elected more than once. Primarily for doctoral students in Health Services Organization and Policy.

HMP826 Applied Econometrics in Health Services Research

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Norton, Edward
  • Prerequisites: Econ571 or equivalent
  • Description: Application of advanced econometric methods to health services research. Focuses on categorical data analysis, simultaneous equations, nonlinear expenditure models, duration models, and specification tests. Students will apply these techniques in weekly problems sets and an empirical term paper.
  • Syllabus for HMP826

HMP833 Research Topics in Sociology and Health Care Organization

  • Graduate Level
  • Fall, Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Staff
  • Prerequisites: HMP doctoral students or P.I.
  • Description: HSOP Program requirements. A topic in sociology and health care organization-policy is selected each term for detailed critical, theoretical, and methodological analysis leading to development, in class, of propositions aimed at advancing scientific status of the area of inquiry. Analysis and development of content follows logic of the research paradigm. Required of students with a sociology cognate in the doctoral program in Health Services Organization and Policy

HMP835 Research Practicum

  • Graduate Level
  • Fall, Winter, Spring-Summer term(s)
  • 3-6 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Staff
  • Prerequisites: HMP 809, Perm Instr
  • Description: The purpose of this course is to allow each student, early in his or her doctoral career, to gain experience in the actual performance of health services research. The experience will enable students to build sound research skills and to gain knowledge of the nature of inquiry in their discipline as well as in the field of health services research. Each student in the HSOP program is expected to elect a total of 6 credits in HMP 835.

HMP990 Dissertation/Precandidates

  • Graduate Level
  • Fall, Winter, Spring, Spring-Summer, Summer term(s)
  • 1-8 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Staff
  • Description: Election for dissertation work by doctoral students not yet admitted to status as candidate.

HMP995 Dissertation Research for Doctorate in Philosophy

  • Graduate Level
  • Fall, Winter, Spring, Spring-Summer, Summer term(s)
  • 8 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Staff
  • Description: Election for dissertation work by doctoral students admitted as candidates

PUBHLTH513 Public Health Systems, Policy and Management

  • Graduate Level
  • Winter term(s)
  • 3 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Singh, Simone; Rubyan, Michael; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Martin, Jenifer;
  • Prerequisites: SPH MPH Students Only
  • Description: This course will introduce students to the public health system, public health policy development, and fundamental management concepts for managing public health organizations. Topics covered include organization, financing and history of public health, public health policy-making, advocacy, and basic principles of finance and human resource management in public health organizations.
  • Course Goals: (1) Students should be able to describe and compare the organization and financing of public health, health care, and regulatory systems and explain the history and core functions of public health. (2) Students should be able to discuss the public health policy-making process, including the roles of ethics and evidence. (3) Students should be able to propose strategies to identify stakeholders and build coalitions and partnerships for influencing public health outcomes. (4) Students should be able to advocate for political, social or economic policies and programs that will improve health in diverse populations. (5) Students should be able to explain basic principles of financial management for public health organizations and apply tools of budget and financial management. (6) Students should be able to describe the importance of human resources and people management and apply negotiation and mediation skills to address interpersonal and interorganizational challenges.
  • Competencies: C5: Compare the organization, structure and function of health care, public health and regulatory systems across national and international settings C10: Explain basic principles and tools of budget and resource management C12: Discuss multiple dimensions of the policy-making process, including the roles of ethics and evidence C13: Propose strategies to identify stakeholders and build coalitions and partnerships for influencing public health outcomes C14: Advocate for political, social or economic policies and programs that will improve health in diverse populations C17: Apply negotiation and mediation skills to address organizational or community challenges
  • Learning Objectives: (1) Students should be able to describe how public health and health care are organized and financed in the United States. (2) Students should be able to provide a brief history of public health. (3) Students should be able to explain key aspects of health care reform. (4) Students should be able to describe the core functions of public health and the 10 Essential Services. (5) Students should be able to describe the importance of financial and human resource management in public health and health care organizations (6) Students should be able to apply negotiation and mediation skills to address interpersonal and interorganizational challenges. (7) Students should be able to discuss the format and use of different types of budgets, prepare simple operating budgets and conduct variance analysis. (8) Students should be able to discuss the public health policy-making process. (9) Students should be able to describe the role of ethics in policy making. (10) Students should be able to advocate for political, social or economic policies and programs that will improve health in diverse populations. (11) Students should be able to propose strategies to identify stakeholders and build coalitions and partnerships for influencing public health outcomes. (12) Students should be able to write and deliver effective testimony.

PUBHLTH796 Special Topics in Public Health

  • Graduate Level
  • Fall, Winter, Spring-Summer term(s)
  • 1-5 Credit Hour(s)
  • Instructor(s): Staff
  • Prerequisites: none
  • Description: This course will be used by faculty members to teach special or emerging topics related to Public Health. The specific material and format will vary by semester and instructor.
  • Course Goals: Will vary by topic and instructor.
  • Competencies: Will vary by topic and instructor.
  • Learning Objectives: Will vary by topic and instructor.